Supervised learning explained
Supervised learning is a sort of technique where you say that given a data from the past, that there are many attributes associated with that data set, you also have something called a label. Supervised learning creates a perception of an object which is reinforced by labeling the object helping in identifying not only the object but also its variability in the future.
Learning as a kid
So, for you, as if you were a kid learning to identify different kinds of fruits, for example. You visually look at that fruit and you know what an apple looks like. You form a mental perception around it. And someone taught you that anything that looks like this shape is an apple. Similar is the case with other fruits as well, for example a banana, orange and so on. So this visual perception you have learnt as a kid and the other help you have got from somebody else told you that this visual perception of yours is an apple. This is what is called a supervised learning.